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What is the musical history of your congregation? Where did the musical traditions come from? What melodies are most important to people and why? Before you begin to discuss possible change, gave respectful attention to the past and present. 

Identify people in the congregation who have been involved in the musical life of the synagogue in the past or are active today. These individuals may include the cantor or music director, the organist or accompanist, choir director, rabbi, choir members, and members of the congregation from different age groups and backgrounds. If your synagogue has a long history, you may wish to also research its older musical history. 

Questions to ask include:1. What was the music of the synagogue like when you first arrived?2. What have been the Jewish musical influences on your life?3. If you grew up in a synagogue, what kind of music was heard in your synagogue then?4. What values did you bring to selecting or singing music in the synagogue?5. What were your favorite melodies or types of song in the past? Today?6. What do you cherish about the music life of our congregation?7. What about the music life of the congregation would you like to change? 

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First prepared as an address to cantors, Schiller introduced her now well-knownformulation of the various moods of Jewish music in this essay. You may alreadybe familiar with the categories of “majesty, meditation, meeting, momentum,and memory.” As you read it now, ask: How do these apply to the music of mysynagogue? 

Where are we going with the music of prayer of our Reform synagogues? Does some larger cultural process exist within the contemporary Jewish community that will predetermine our sacred music as it develops into the next century? 

Although the numbers of affiliated Jews are diminishing, due largely to our successful assimilation, an inner core of synagogue regulars, those who religiously attend our services and “keep the fires burning” within our communities, is thriving. Enthusiasm is flowering among those seriously committed to synagogue life. They exhibit impressive vigor and passion for prayer, study, and social activism. They take our adult education courses, attend kallot, learn to read from the Torah, and sing in our volunteer choirs. Some are so hungry for involvement, learning, and spirituality that they even join synagogue committees!  

Singing: An Entrance into Jewish Ritual Life  

These regulars have wholeheartedly expressed their desire to sing within the service. We cantors have responded to their call for inclusion by finding ways to sing with them, rather than for them, at every possible opportunity. Let us first try to understand the underlying sociological, psychological, or spiritual reasons for their desire to participate actively in the service. They tell us that they feel welcomed and accepted within our community when we invite them to sing with us. Moreover, singing prayers has become their entrance into Jewish ritual life as well as their gateway into learning Jewish sacred texts. Through singing Hebrew or English words, made possible either by soaring melody or simple nusach (prayer modes), they feel empowered to pray as Jews, in a way that undeniably links them with the larger Jewish community and affirms their Jewish identity. Singing gives them the sacred key that allows their access to Jewish sacred tradition. If the regulars are giving us this message, we can only imagine how first timers feel! 

Our future will include ever more communal singing within our synagogues. Today we join in singing the melodic refrains within large, complex compositions for cantor, choir, instruments, and congregation. In such settings of rich, sophisticated harmony and several layers of melodic counterpoint, modern composers often include sections with lyric melodies. From the first hearing, congregants can easily relate to these accessible moments and eventually enjoy the more challenging sections as well. 

An Ever Richer and More Complex Mix 

What are the musical elements of congregational song, and how will this song develop? Which styles are timeless, and which will disappear with the next stylistic wave? I believe that we will see a gradual increase in traditional chant within our services. Cantors will teach us to chant some of the liturgy in nusach, whether in Hebrew or English. In addition, we will continue toimplement various ethnic traditions within Jewish sacred music. We have discovered the Chasidic niggun and Sephardi melody, and we are rediscovering Yiddish music and culture. We are experimenting with Middle Eastern and Yemenite traditional music. Secular American styles too have permeated our contemporary musical idiom. In short, we are broadening our definition of contemporary liturgical music by incorporating various musical traditions, ancient to modern, from across the Jewish spectrum. Our artistry will be proven as we attempt to integrate this rich, diverse mix into an artistically cohesive whole.  

How do we create a fluid, musically sound, and spiritually meaningful service? What will be the balance of styles? Is our music to become fully participatory? Will the pendulum swing so far toward inclusivity that we exclude music that requires the performance by a cantor and a professional choir and instrumentalists? We must first consider a larger perspective. What dynamics affect our choices of particular musical styles? Jews today want to feel both welcomed and empowered to participate within the service. They have sought out the synagogue for communal gatherings. They come perhaps to find solace, or to meet friends. They come, in some way, to meet God. Many are burdened by the mundaneness of their lives and yearn for meaning and purpose to nourish their minds and calm their souls. What kind of prayer will speak to them? How will the music help them on their spiritual path? 

A New Vocabulary of Sacred Music 

We need to understand clearly what occurs within music itself that creates a sense of prayerfulness. If we could scientifically break down sacred music to isolate various moods of prayer, perhaps we could perceive how certain prayer experiences directly relate to particular musical expressions. We have spent too much energy defending particular musical styles as if the music were the end in itself. Let us instead develop a new vocabulary of sacred music that will focus on the unique phenomena at the intersection of prayer and music. Here are descriptions of several distinct kinds of prayer. Even though the following terms may appear simplistic, perhaps they will help us discuss synagogue music beyond purely musical categories. 

Majestic: A Sense of Awe and Grandeur 

Our first mood is majestic: that which evokes within us a sense of awe and grandeur. A classic example is the music of the First and

Second
Temple periods. The Levites, with full choir and orchestra, assembled a magnificent offering suited only for God. What is our equivalent of majesty in musical prayer? Our liturgical texts certainly intend to inspire such passion on a regular basis. Look at the texts of the Torah service, Kedushah, Adon olam, Sh’ma, or Hashkiveinu, not to mention our High Holy Day and festival liturgy. When are we ever so moved within our service as to sense the majesty implicit in so many of our prayers? How can we create awe and grandeur when inclusivity has become the hallmark of our age? 

Meditative: Inward and Reflective 

Our second mood is meditative: that which leads us inward, toward reflective, contemplative prayer. It is to know the “still small voice” within ourselves, the one that often eludes us. Consider the Silent Prayer, “May the Words,” Mi shebeirach, or even Kol nidrei. Is our liturgical music conducive to moments of genuine meditation?  

Meeting: Creating and Encountering Oneness Our third mood is meeting: moments in which we become aware of the larger community and literally meet other souls through prayer. When all voices join to create a resounding chorus of prayer, when every voice contributes its sound to the whole, a new expression of prayer is born. Even among strangers, we sense both a personal and a spiritual connection with those with whom we pray. Imagine a seder table where everyone joins to sing a blessing or song.   We have so many opportunities to create “meeting moments” within our liturgy: when the Torah is taken from the ark, or at the beginning or end of a section of the service, or on Yom Kippur. Whether majestic or meditative— whatever the musical style—the meeting of voices defines this type of prayer.  

Moving Along: Creating Momentum 

Of course, not every melody fits into one these categories. Some music functions as the “connective tissue” of the liturgy, carrying the worship from one section to the next—the Chatzi Kaddish on Shabbat evening, for example, may not readily be identified as music of meeting, meditation or majesty— although some of us no doubt experience it in each of these ways. Mostly, I think of it as the music of “moving along”or “momentum.” In this case, its music is traditional and connects us to our musical history. Its familiarity is comforting; its specific melody, chant or prayer mode, is a reminder of where we are in Jewish sacred time. As an individual piece of music it is relatively neutral; its function is simply to punctuate one section of the service. But “connectors,” such as the Chatzi Kaddish, fulfill an important task—they create momentum, so that one prayer flows smoothly into the next.  

These four M’s of prayer just begin to address the many subtleties of the dramatic and musical nuances inherent in sacred music. Invariably there are overlaps, for the boundaries between majesty, meditation, and meeting easily blur, but that does not lessen the individual function of each mood within a service. Some music’s primary task is to “move things along.” Memory  may also be associated with any of these moods. These distinctions remind us to focus upon the larger process of what prayer does, rather than solely upon the repertoire we choose. We will never get beyond our disagreements about musical style! Sacred music nurtures meaningful, honest prayer, whether or not the music we ultimately choose satisfies our artistic selves. The real test is whether our sacred music satisfies our spiritual selves, as individuals and as a community. To me, a successful service offers a healthy combination of moods of prayer to express an array of paths toward knowing God.  

Balance Between the Different MoodsToday our people call out to be included. They ask us to enrich their sense of meeting. Whether they know it or not, they do not wish to abandon either the majestic or the meditative moods of prayer. Ultimately these four moods succeed when they complement and balance one another. When a part of the whole is not fulfilling our communal needs, however, we must examine the effectiveness of that part and its relationship to the whole. Do we offer anarray of paths to God which all can appreciate? Does our music express the affective moods of our sacred texts? If we assess our meeting moments, both at specific times and within the entire service, perhaps we can determine how our music can encourage a sense of welcome and empowerment, even amidst a fully balanced range of moods and styles. Let us make a correlation, then, between our prayers and their most vivid musical expressions. Let us do this as individuals, and then with our community. I hope that our prayers will continue to uncover the majesty within the Godly world around us and the intimacy of our sacred relationship with the Divine. I pray that we meet one another, both in honest debate and in the prayers we sing. 

Memory: Connecting to the PastSome people suggest that a fifth function should be added to the list: memory. Sometimes it isthe associative connection that one’s memory makes to a particular melody that moves peoplethe most. In these situations, the melody and/or the words are symbols. The significance of these associations may be private—“The melody that my grandmother sang as she lit the Shabbat candles” or “The song we always sang at our family seder”—but if many people in the community have the same memory and bring similar associations, then the memory is a mood of shared prayer. If the music of meeting establishes connections with our community today, the music of memory creates continuity with our communal past. In Jewish tradition, particular musical themes serve as leitmotifs for corresponding Holy Days: imagine Yom Kippur without the Kol Nidre melody! While style and our own musical tastes have changed over time, we must nonetheless respect the power of the music of memory to evoke and embody the sacred. Memory is not a separate mood from the four M’s of meeting, majesty, meditation, and momentum; it is an over-arching category that is often experienced simultaneously with the others. 

The Many Faces of Jewish Sacred Music1. In what ways do you agree? How much do you differ? 

2. At our synagogue, is the mood evenly divided between the “majestic,” “meditative,” “meeting” and “momentum”? 

3. What do you think about the balance of musical styles in a typical service in our synagogue? Is there more emphasis on one mood than on the others? If so, why? 

4. How are each of the moods created or supported by the non-musical aspects of our service? 

5. How does this compare to the music at other places of worship you have visited? 

6. Would this exercise be significantly different at a Shabbat morning service? A bar/bat mitzvah? A festival? High Holidays?

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